Adaptations Interdependence And Competition

Adaptations Interdependence And Competition
Adaptations Interdependence And Competition
Quick questions
1 What is a ‘community?
2 State what abiotic factors are and give three examples.
3 State what biotic factors are and give three examples.
4 Explain what ‘adaptations’ are, and give examples of adaptations
to extremely cold conditions.
5 Explain what ‘extremophiles’ are and give an example.
Exam-style questions
6 Organisms in a community often compete for resources.
6–1 Give three resources that plants compete with each other for. [2]
6–2 Give three resources that animals compete with each other for. [2]
6–3 Explain what the term ‘interdependence’ means. [2]
6–4 Explain what makes a stable community. [2]
6–5 Figure 1 shows a simple grassland food web.
grasshopper
lizard
hawk
rabbit
snake
mouse
grass
Figure 1
Explain the terms below with reference to the food web in Figure 1.
• community [1]
• ecosystem [1]
• population. [1]
Total: 11
p431 4.7.1.1
p434 4.7.1.2
p435–6 4.7.1.3
p437–8 4.7.1.4
p439 4.7.1.4
p431–3 4.7.1.1
WS1.2
7 Ecology
7 Ecology
46
7 Abiotic factors can affect communities.
7–1 Give three examples of abiotic factors. [3]
7–2 A student notices that there are fewer daisies growing in a
shaded area under a tree than in an unshaded area.
A student makes the hypothesis:
‘The number of daisies growing in a field is affected by light intensity.’
Describe an investigation to test this hypothesis. [6]
7–3 Explain why there might be fewer daisies in the shaded than
unshaded area of the field. [2]
Total: 11
8 Biotic factors are living factors that can affect a community.
8–1 Give three examples of biotic factors. [3]
8–2 Two different species of squirrel are found in the UK, the red
squirrel and the grey squirrel. The red squirrel is a native species
whereas the grey squirrel was introduced from North America in
the late nineteenth century.
The population of red squirrels has decreased from 3.5million to 120 000.
Calculate the percentage decrease in the red squirrel population.
Give your answer to three significant figures. [2]
8–3 Table 1 gives information about grey and red squirrels.
Grey squirrel Red squirrel
Mass in g 540–660 270–340
Diet Shares food sources with red squirrel
and also eats seeds with high tannin
content that red squirrels avoid.
Tree seeds, buds, flowers and
shoots from trees, fungi, fruits.
Habitat Both broad-leaved and coniferous
forests.
Typically live in coniferous forests.
Population density
per 10000 m2
15 individuals Up to three individuals
Disease risk Carry the squirrelpox virus, but not
affected by it.
Die within two weeks if infected
with squirrelpox virus.
Table 1
Suggest three reasons why the population of red squirrels has
decreased. Use information from the table. [3]
Total: 8
9 Organisms are adapted to live in their natural environment.
Extremophiles live in extreme environments.
9–1 Give three examples of the features of extreme environments. [3]
9–2 Name one extremophile and state where it lives. [2]
9–3 The camel is an animal that lives in hot, dry conditions, such as
a desert. Camels can feed on thorny desert plants and can live
without water for months.
p434–5 4.7.1.2
p446–7 4.7.1.2 WS2.2
p434

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