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1. What is the main reason why no prosperous mercantile middle class
developed in medieval Russia?
(A) The Russian monarchy and aristocracy did not want a middle class
to develop.
(B) The Russian government was too politically conservative to invest
in the economy.
(C) The Russian climate and topography prevented easy, frequent
travel within the empire.
(D) Russian artisans were not as skilled as their Western European
counterparts.
(E) The Russians were Eastern Orthodox Catholics.
2. Why was Ivan IV able to remain in power despite his mental instability?
(A) He remained personally popular and beloved among the common
people.
(B) The Orthodox clergy remained loyal to him as the head of the
state.
(C) There was no legal or constitutional procedure to remove an
incapable ruler.
(D) There were no rival claimants to the throne who were any better
qualified than Ivan.
(E) Ivan was the last of his family, so he had no legitimate heirs
to succeed him.
Absolute Monarchy in Early Modern Europe
CHAPTER 2
10 ❯ McGraw-Hill’s 500 European History Questions
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3. Russia truly began its history as a modern nation-state when
(A) Dmitri of the Don led the Russians to victory over the Tatars
in the Battle of Kulikovo
(B) Ivan III married the Byzantine princess Zoe Palaeologos
(C) Ivan III withheld the customary annual tribute to the Tatars,
forcing their withdrawal from Russia
(D) Ivan IV created the Oprichnina and made it responsible only
to himself
(E) Vasili II decreed that only his direct descendants could inherit
the Russian throne
4. In early modern Russia, why was there no strong legislative body
to balance the power of the czar?
(A) The czar did not trust the boyars to be loyal to the throne.
(B) The Eastern Orthodox faith was not compatible with a balance
of power in the government.
(C) The boyars’ estates were too far from Moscow to permit frequent
travel.
(D) The Russian people were loyal to the czar and did not want a strong
legislature.
(E) The czar was more interested in military victories than in
administration.
5. The “Time of Troubles” that lasted from about 1590 to 1613 was
characterized by all of the following EXCEPT
(A) peasant uprisings
(B) competition for the throne
(C) war with foreign kingdoms
(D) widespread crop failure and famine
(E) wholesale executions of dissenters
6. Which best accounts for the conquering mentality of the rulers
of Muscovy during the late Middle Ages?
(A) the fact that Moscow was considered “the Third Rome”
(B) the fact that the rulers of Muscovy had little contact with any
Western rulers
(C) the fact that Moscow was the empire’s capital city
(D) the fact that Muscovy had a mild climate
(E) the fact that Muscovy had no natural, geographical defenses
Absolute Monarchy in Early Modern Europe ❮ 11
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7. The major goals of the Russian princes and czars from the 14th through
the 16th centuries included all of the following EXCEPT
(A) to put an end to Tatar authority in the region once and for all
(B) to enter into an era of cultural and intellectual exchange with Western
Europe
(C) to expand Russia’s borders for strategic and trade purposes
(D) to establish an absolute Russian monarchy in a central capital city
(E) to achieve royal control over all ranks and elements of Russian society
8. How did Poland hope to capitalize on Russia’s Time of Troubles?
(A) by converting the Russian population to Roman Catholicism
(B) by establishing formal diplomatic relations with Russia
(C) by aiding the Russian people in a planned uprising against Moscow
(D) by taking over Russian territory and thus expanding its own borders
(E) by conquering Russia and making it part of a Polish empire
9. Boris Godunov was an unpopular ruler primarily because
(A) he had been elected to the throne rather than inheriting it directly
(B) his weak, indecisive personality made him unfit to rule
(C) he refused to consult the boyars on matters of national policy
(D) he was the brother-in-law of Czar Feodor
(E) he had served in the Oprichnina under Ivan IV
10. Why did Boris Godunov issue the ukase (royal edict) of 1597?
(A) to put down a rebellion that broke out among the armed forces
(B) to restrict the peasants’ right to move about freely through the realm
(C) to streamline the civil service and make it more efficient
(D) to levy new taxes on the common people
(E) to ensure that his children would inherit the Russian throne
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