Buy Co-ordinated Cardiovascular Responses

Buy Co-ordinated Cardiovascular Responses
Buy Co-ordinated Cardiovascular Responses
17.1 When a healthy subject moves from a supine to a standing position,
a. gravity causes a backflow of venous blood into the legs, leading to
venous pooling.
b. the jugular veins in the neck collapse.
c. the central venous pressure (CVP) increases.
d. there is a sustained fall in arterial pulse pressure.
e. the circulating blood volume decreases slowly.
17.2 On standing up,
a. carotid sinus baroreceptor activity declines.
b. peripheral resistance falls.
c. the heart rate falls.
d. mean arterial pressure dips (transient hypotension).
e. mean arterial pressure in the steady state is higher than the supine value.
f. postural dizziness can be treated with the α-blocker phentolamine.
17.3 Forced expiration against a closed glottis, e.g. during childbirth, elicits
a. an instantaneous rise in arterial blood pressure on starting the manoeuvre.
b. a sustained increase in right ventricle stroke volume.
c. an increase in aortic pulse pressure.
d. a transient increase in venous return on ceasing the manoeuvre.
e. a temporary slowing of the heart on ceasing the manoeuvre.
Buy Co-ordinated Cardiovascular Responses
17.4 During upright, dynamic exercise, such as running or cycling,
a. O2 uptake from the alveolar gas increases as pulmonary blood flow increases.
b. cardiac output is increased mainly through a rise in stroke volume.
c. cardiac β1-adrenoceptors are stimulated.
d. the end-diastolic volume of the ventricles is increased.
e. the end-systolic volume of the ventricles is increased.
f. heart rate is raised quickly at the onset of exercise via reduced vagal activity.
Buy Co-ordinated Cardiovascular Responses
17.5 The cardiovascular changes during exercise include
a. a fall in gastrointestinal blood flow.
b. a rise in renal blood flow.
c. a rise in active muscle blood flow caused chiefly by the rise in blood pressure.
d. a greater rise in systolic blood pressure than diastolic pressure.
e. a rise in total peripheral resistance.
f. a greater increase in stroke volume during supine than upright exercise.
g. a greater increase in blood pressure during static than dynamic exercise.
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