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Fundamental Equations

of Thermodynamics

Calculate the change in the molar internal energy (AU), in J mol, for

the isothermal expansion of methane gas from 2.00 L (V,) to 10.00 L

(V,). The values of the van der Waals constants for methane are a = 2.22

L’ bar mol and 6 = 0.0428 L mol!.

One mole of water vapor undergoes a compression to liquid water at 373 K

(T). The process is reversible, isothermal, and isobaric. What is the work

(w) for this process?

An ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion into a connected

evacuated vessel at 315 K. During the expansion, the pressure drops from

7.50 bar to 2.50 bar, and the volume increases from 2.50 L to 7.50 L.

Calculate the molar enthalpy change (AH).

An ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion into a connected

evacuated vessel at 315 K (7). During the expansion, the pressure drops

from 7.50 bar (7) to 2.50 bar (P3), and the volume increases from 2.50 L

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(V,) to 7.50 L (V3). Calculate the molar Gibbs free energy change (AG).

An ideal gas undergoes an isothermal expansion into a connected

evacuated vessel at 315 K (7). During the expansion, the pressure drops

from 7.50 bar to 2.50 bar, and the volume increases from 2.50 L to 7.50 L.

The molar Gibbs free energy, AG, is —2.88 x 10° J mol, and the

enthalpy, AH, is 0. Calculate the molar entropy change (AS).

Calculate the value of AG; for mercury vapor at 298.15 K and 15.0 bar

(P). The value of AG for mercury vapor is 31.8 kJ mol”! at 298.15 K (7).

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>» McGraw-Hill’s 500 Physical Chemistry Questions

Calculate the value of AG; for liquid mercury at 298.15 K and 15.0 bar

(P;). The value of AG,° for mercury vapor is 0.00 kJ mol at 298.15 K.

The density of liquid mercury at 298.15 K is 13.59 g cm’.

Calculate the fugacity (f) of carbon dioxide gas at 75.0 bar (P) and 273

K (T). The van der Waals constants for carbon dioxide are a = 3.54 L” bar

mol and 6= 0.0427 L mol!.

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The activity (a) of liquid mercury at 298 K (7) is defined to be 1.

Assuming the molar volume of liquid mercury is constant, what is the

activity of liquid mercury at 75.0 bar (P)? The molar volume of mercury

(V) is 0.0148 L mol”!.

Calculate the molar entropy change (AS) for the isothermal expansion of

methane gas from 2.00 L (V,) to 10.00 L (V,). The values of the van der

Waals constants for methane are a = 2.22 L* bar mol? and 6 = 0.0428 L

mol |.

Using the data in the following table, calculate the standard Gibbs energy

of formation for CaO(s) at 298.15 K.

Component AH? S°

Ca(s) 0 kJ mol”! 41.4] mol! kK”!

O,(g) 0kJ mol! 205.0 J mol”! K”!

CaO(s) —635.5 kJ mol! 39°8 Jmol, ke

The following equation shows the disproportionation of copper(I) ions:

2 Cut(aq) > Cu**(aq) Cu(s)

At 298 K (7), the enthalpy change (AH°) for this process is —78.6 kJ,

and the Gibbs free energy change (AG°) is —35.3 kJ. What is the entropy

change (AS°) for this process in joules per kelvin?

Determine the Gibbs free energy change (AG®) for the vaporization of liquid sodium given that the enthalpy change (AH°) for the process is

105.27 kJ] mol and the entropy change (AS°) for the process is 91.06 J mol! K~!. The boiling point of sodium is 1,156 K (T).

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