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1. What is the best way to express the difference between a genotype and a
genome?
(A) Two organisms may vary in genotype as a result of differences in
DNA sequences but have the same genome because they have the
same genes.
(B) One organism may have one genome but two genotypes if the
genotypes are diploid.
(C) Eukaryotes have genomes; prokaryotes have genotypes.
(D) A genotype represents the sequence of gene loci, while a genome
represents the sequence of DNA bases.
(E) Eukaryotes have genotypes; prokaryotes have genomes.
2. Which of the following is true about a human male’s karyotype?
(A) There are 23 homologous chromosomes.
(B) The banding patterns for all chromosomes in a single nucleus are
identical.
(C) The banding patterns for all autosomes in a single nucleus are
identical.
(D) All chromosomes are in matching pairs.
(E) There are 22 homologous chromosome pairs.
86. Klinefelter’s syndrome is indicated by an XXY sex chromosome
combination. This abnormality is due to:
(A) gene deletion.
(B) gene duplication.
(C) nondisjunction.
(D) gene translocation.
(E) infertility.
CHAPTER 3
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22 › McGraw-Hill Education 500 MCAT: Biology
87. The human ABO blood groups are under _____ inheritance control.
(A) simple-dominance
(B) codominance
(C) partial-dominance
(D) incomplete-dominance
(E) epistatic
88. Which of the following is NOT true concerning the process of meiosis?
(A) Alternate forms of the genes are shuffled.
(B) Parental DNA is divided and distributed to gametes.
(C) The diploid number of chromosomes is changed from diploid to
haploid.
(D) Offspring are provided with new gene combinations.
(E) Meiosis is a process that occurs only in the ovaries but not in the
testes.
89. _____ is a genetic disorder in which the individual has a mutation in an
ion channel protein.
(A) Tay-Sachs disease
(B) Hemophilia
(C) Sickle cell disease
(D) Cystic fibrosis
(E) Phenylketonuria
90. When a mother cell gives rise to four genetically different daughter cells,
the process is known as
(A) a series of mutations.
(B) meiosis.
(C) cloning.
(D) mitosis.
(E) genetic engineering.
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91. A father with type A blood and a mother with type B blood
(A) will always have children with blood type A.
(B) will always have children with blood type B.
(C) will never have children with blood type O.
(D) will have children with blood type O more often than not.
(E) will have children of all blood types, depending on the parental
genotypes.
Genetics and Evolution ‹ 23
92. By convention, a genotype of RR would indicate
(A) homozygous dominant on any chromosome.
(B) heterozygous on male sex chromosomes.
(C) homozygous recessive on autosomes.
(D) heterozygous on autosomes.
(E) hemizygous on female sex chromosomes.
93. Which is NOT true of human chromosomes?
(A) The haploid number is 23.
(B) Somatic cells contain a total of 46 chromosomes.
(C) There are 23 pairs of chromosomes.
(D) Gametes contain two of each of 23 chromosomes.
(E) The diploid number is 46.
94. A mutation is most correctly defined as
(A) any change in the DNA sequence.
(B) a detrimental change in phenotype.
(C) any change from the wild type.
(D) a change in DNA that has a lethal effect.
(E) any change except one that has a neutral effect.
95. To express an X-linked recessive trait
(A) a male must be heterozygous for that trait.
(B) a female must be homozygous for that trait.
(C) a male must be homozygous for that trait.
(D) a female must be heterozygous for that trait.
(E) a female must be hemizygous for that trait.
96. A person with Tay-Sachs disease
(A) has a sex-linked condition.
(B) has a mutation in a gene that controls lipid production.
(C) suffers from frequent bruising.
(D) must limit the amount of meat in the diet.
(E) is incapable of having male children.
97. In genetics, a locus is
(A) a recessive gene.
(B) a sex chromosome.
(C) the location of an allele on a chromosome.
(D) an unmatched allele on a sex chromosome.
(E) a gene that produces a product that regulates another gene.
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