Buy Incretin Effect in Healthy Subjects

Buy Incretin Effect in Healthy Subjects
Buy Incretin Effect in Healthy Subjects
1. GIP was found to have an incretin effect in 1973 and GLP-1 was found to have an
incretin effect in 1987. Identify the CORRECT statement about the “incretin
A. It is the effect of a substance to inhibit insulin release.
B. It is the effect of a substance to cause increase in glycemia.
C. It is the greater amount of insulinemia after oral than intravenous glucose.
D. It is the increase in insulin secretion that occurs when the glucose is given
intravenously when compared to when it is given orally.
2. Though both GIP and GLP-1 are incretins, there are certain differences between
the two. Identify the FALSE statement.
A. There is “GIP resistance” in type 2 diabetes.
B. GLP-1 contributes more to the incretin effect in healthy subjects after a meal.
Obesity (fasting levels) 2 hr postprandial Immediately before a meal
A Increased Decreased Increased
B Decreased Baseline Baseline
C Decreased Decreased Baseline
D Decreased Baseline Increased
C. GIP and GLP-1 have opposing effects on glucagon secretion.
D. GLP-1 causes delayed gastric emptying whereas GIP does not affect gastric
3. An investigator wants to test the effect of food intake on GLP-1 levels in a group of
RYGB patients. He uses obese patients who are age, sex, and BMI matched as
controls. He also uses a group of lean patients as controls. Identify the TRUE
statement about GLP-1.
A. Fasting GLP-1 has been definitively shown to be reduced in obesity.
B. Postprandial GLP-1 response is typically reduced in obese when compared to
lean subjects.
C. Fasting GLP-1 has consistently been shown to increase after RYGB.
D. Patients after RYGB have an impaired GLP-1 response to a meal.
4. PYY has been identified as a satiety factor that may contribute to decreased food
intake after bariatric surgery. Identify the CORRECT statement about the
postsurgical change of PYY levels after bariatric surgery.
A. BPD causes same degree of increase in postprandial PYY compared to RYGB.
B. The postprandial PYY response after RYGB is more than that of sleeve
C. PYY has been shown to be increased after ileal transposition in humans.
D. Postprandial PYY response is normal in obesity.
5. An investigator working on rats wants to find out the change of PYY and GLP-1
that can occur after an experimental bariatric procedure. He uses a particular
enzyme inhibitor to prevent alteration of the hormone levels he wants to assay.
Which of the following facts that the investigator needs to know about PYY is
A. PYY is inactivated by DPP-4.
B. PYY (1-36) is the predominant form of circulating hormone.
C. PYY acts on the arcuate nuclues.
D. PYY is a promising obesity pharmacotherapy.
Buy Incretin Effect in Healthy Subjects
6. The delivery of food into the distal small intestine decreases gastric emptying that
has been termed the “ileal brake.” This mechanism may have an important role in
weight loss and improvement of metabolic parameters after bariatric surgery.
Identify the FALSE statement about the ileal brake mechanism.
A. It contributes to decreased food intake.
B. One of the mediators is neurotensin.
C. Presence of food in stomach leads to “braking” of ileal motility.
D. This is a humoral as well as a neural mechanism.
7. Amylin is a peptide hormone that is cosecreted with insulin by bb cells at roughly 1
amylin:100 insulin ratio, and analogues of amylin have been used as pharmacotherapy for the treatment of diabetes. Which of the following statements about
amylin is FALSE?
A. Amylin increases insulin secretion.
B. The combination of amylin and metreleptin has been found to be more effective
in the treatment of obesity than either of them alone.
C. Low amylin levels are found in diabetes.
D. Low meal-stimulated amylin levels are found in obesity.
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8. Leptin is regarded as an indicator of long-term energy stores. Identify the TRUE
statement about leptin levels in humans.
A. Subcutaneous fat is the main source of leptin.
B. Leptin is higher in obese type 2 diabetes patients compared to patients with
obesity without diabetes.
C. Leptin levels are inversely correlated with insulin in obese patients with insulin
D. Low leptin levels induce negative energy balance.
9. Obese people have leptin resistance due to which they do not respond to leptin
when it is administered as pharmacotherapy. Which of the following factors has
been definitively implicated as a cause of leptin resistance in humans?
A. Mutated leptin receptor
B. Decreased levels of adiponectin
C. Defect in leptin signaling
D. Mutated leptin gene
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