Cardiovascular Receptors Reflexes And Central Control

Cardiovascular Receptors Reflexes And Central Control
Cardiovascular Receptors Reflexes And Central Control
16.1 Arterial baroreceptors
a. respond primarily to stretch, not pressure.
b. are located chiefly in the aortic and carotid bodies.
c. can be stimulated by a rise in pulse pressure with no rise in mean pressure.
d. reflexly attenuate fluctuations in the mean arterial pressure.
e. have afferent fibres in both the trigeminal and vagus nerves.
16.2 The activity of carotid baroreceptor afferent fibres (action potentials)
a. ceases completely below blood pressures in the range 50–100 mmHg.
b. is pulsatile at normal blood pressures.
c. elicits a ‘pressor’ reflex.
d. causes a reflex tachycardia.
e. causes a reflex decrease in sympathetic vasoconstrictor fibre activity.
f. causes a reflex rise in cardiac contractility.
Cardiovascular Receptors Reflexes And Central Control
16.3 The baroreflex
a. is an example of a positive feedback control system.
b. reduces systemic arterial blood pressure.
c. causes a reflex tachycardia on moving from lying to standing.
d. is reset to a lower operating point during exercise.
e. can be stimulated by massaging the neck just below the angle of the jaw.
16.4 Baroreceptor unloading during hypovolaemia reflexly
a. helps to maintain the cardiac output.
b. increases the total peripheral resistance.
c. minimizes the fall in central venous pressure via sympathetic-mediated
venoconstriction.
d. promotes capillary absorption of interstitial fluid.
e. promotes renal fluid retention by inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system.
f. promotes renal fluid retention by stimulating vasopressin secretion.
Cardiovascular Receptors Reflexes And Central Control
16.5 Cardiac afferents
a. that are mechanosensitive and are located in ventricular myocardium mediate
the pain of a heart attack.
b. in the venoatrial region elicit a reflex tachycardia and diuresis when cardiac
filling pressure is elevated.
c. that are chemosensitive and are located in ventricular myocardium mediate
the pain of angina pectoris.
d. unlike baroreceptor afferents, do not relay in the nucleus ambiguus solitarius
of the medulla oblongata.
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