Discussion reply!!! about 50 words switching regulators

 
So first off, I will explain why we use switching regulators over  other types of regulators, one of the major causes of the inefficiency  of a linear regulator is that the pass transistor operates in the linear  region. Meaning that it will constantly see both a high current and a  high voltage or at the very least a moderate one. This ends up resulting  in a large amount of power dissipation. 
This is where the switching regulators come into play, switching  regulators rely on the efficiency of the transistor switch. When the  transistor is turned off or (not in saturation), there is no current  flow, so therefore no power is being dissipated. Now when the transistor  is turned on (in saturation), a high current will flow, but the voltage  across the transistor, which is your Vce(sat), is quite small.
This is where you get the largest amount of dissipation from a  switching regulator. The switching interval is the only time that the  current or voltage is quite large. And due to the speed of switching  this period is very short compared to the overall cycle time.
However, even though switching back on and off can be very efficient,  this normally results in pulses that are not appropriate for most  loads. To help smooth this out we can use and arrange inductors and  capacitors. This is pertinent in the use of a switching regulator.
Above is a basic switching regulator. The signal coming out of the  control element is a pulse train, unlike a linear regulator. It is then  passed to the LC filter network to smooth out the pulses. 
Now the heart of the circuit is actually in the pulse width  modulator, this is where they duty cycle comes in to give the type of  pulse waveform, depending on what the system requires. 
Although there are many advantages to the switching regulator it does  have its disadvantages as well. First off it is more complex than the  basic linear regulators. This can be detrimental when looking at your  low-power designs specifically. This circuit can also cause a noisy  electrical noise when operating. In turn, if certain precautions such as  shielding are not introduced will cause major interference to the  nearby surrounding circuits. 
Shown below are two other types of switching regulators:
The Buck Switching Regulator:
Boost Switching Regulator:
The Buck-Boost Switching Regulator:
References:
References:
Fiore, James. (May 22, 2022) Switching Regulators. LibreTexts  Engineering.  https://eng.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Electrical_Engineering/Electronics/Operational_Amplifiers_and_Linear_Integrated_Circuits_-_Theory_and_Application_(Fiore)/08:_Voltage_Regulation/8.04:_Switching_Regulators
Electronics Tutorials. Switch Mode Power Supply. https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/power/switch-mode-power-supply.html

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