Order Causation and Natural Laws

Order Causation and Natural Laws
Order Causation and Natural Laws
1. If some event x always brings about another event y, even though other
events could bring about y as well, then x is said to be a
cause of y.
(A) necessary
(B) formal
(C) necessary and sufficient
(D) sufficient
(E) random
2. Causal conditional refers to any statement of the form .
(A) absent event x, event y does not happen (as a result of x)
(B) events x and y overdetermine event z
(C) event x is correlated with event y
(D) if event y happens, then it does not happen as a result of event x
(E) if event x happens, then event y happens (as a result of x)
Order Causation and Natural Laws
3. The basic idea behind theories of causation is that
statements of cause and effect can best be understood when put
in the form “If x had not occurred, y would not have occurred.”
(A) metaphysical
(B) counterfactual
(C) Humean
(D) natural
(E) antirealist
4. According to occasionalism, all events .
(A) actually happen simultaneously
(B) are caused by God
(C) have sufficient causes
(D) have effects
(E) are predetermined
Metaphysics ❮ 105
Order Causation and Natural Laws
5. Which of the following is NOT a metaphysical view about the laws
of nature?
(A) The universalism view
(B) The antirealist view
(C) The laws-are-necessarily-true view
(D) The antireductionist view
(E) The quantum indeterminacy view
6. Apart from reductionism, what other view does antireductionism
about natural laws specifically reject?
(A) Realism
(B) Substance dualism
(C) Supervenience
(D) Universalism
(E) Logical positivism
7. The deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation views scientific
explanations as .
(A) inductive arguments with a sufficient amount of sufficiently strong
supporting premises
(B) deductive arguments with at least one premise stating a law of nature
(C) analogical arguments with a repeatedly observed correlation of
premises and conclusion
(D) abductive arguments with at least one premise stating a law of nature
(E) inductive arguments with a repeatedly observed correlation of
premises and conclusion
8. Which of the following is typically invoked as a scientific counterexample
to the notion of a purely deterministic universe?
(A) Einstein’s general theory of relativity
(B) Quantum indeterminacy
(C) The big bang theory
(D) Free will
(E) Laplace’s demon
9. On one theory of natural laws, the notion of a law of nature should
be cashed out in terms of a special relation holding between universals.
Which of the following has been a special criticism of this view?
(A) It is not clear what this “special relation” could be.
(B) The existence of universals is not empirically verifiable.
(C) Universals never stand in the relation required for this theory.
(D) Laws of nature do not actually exist.
(E) The theory is true of only some laws of nature.
10. According to David Hume, our concept of causality is derived from
the experience of constant conjunctions. How does Immanuel Kant’s
view about causality differ from Hume’s?
(A) Kant’s view does not differ from Hume’s at all.
(B) According to Kant, our concept of causality is imposed on, rather
than derived from, our experience.
(C) According to Kant, our concept of causality is derived from the
experience of strong correlations rather than constant conjunctions.
(D) Kant did not have a view about causality.
(E) According to Kant, our concept of causality is determined by our
language.
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