Order Cognitive Dissonance Theory

Order Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Order Cognitive Dissonance Theory
1. According to the cognitive dissonance theory, people tend to
change their ______________ to keep them consistent with their
_________________.
(A) behaviors, attitudes
(B) attitudes, social influence
(C) behaviors, social influence
(D) attitudes, behaviors
2. Which of the following is not one of the three ways in which people experience cognitive dissonance according to Festinger?
(A) postdecisional dissonance
(B) effort justification
(C) social influence
(D) insufficient justification
3. Yesterday while attending an outdoor sporting event, Bill bought a motorcycle so he could go riding with his buddies. Today he is experiencing
some remorse and thinks it may have been an impulsive purchase, and he
probably won’t have time to go riding with his friends. Bill may take the
bike back, but he is thinking he could ride the bike to work and save on
gas. Which type of cognitive dissonance is Bill experiencing?
(A) Reevaluation justification
(B) Postdecisional dissonance
(C) Effort justification
(D) Insufficient justification
Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
Order Cognitive Dissonance Theory
4. The cognitive dissonance theory was developed by _____________ to help
explain the discomfort people experience in a situation where two or more
attitudes or beliefs conflict.
494. The discomfort of cognitive dissonance motivates people toward reducing
it either by__________________, incorporating additional information,
or downplaying the importance of the dissonant thought.
Social Theories and Perspectives ‹ 119
5. Mike has been training for six months to run in an upcoming marathon.
He is running for four hours a day and has been able to reach 18 miles.
Lately, he is having muscle cramps during the night, and he stiffens up
after working all day at his desk job. Mike has always wanted to run a
marathon, but he is starting to have second thoughts about the importance
of this life goal. He is thinking about changing his registration to the half
marathon instead. Mike is experiencing ________________ cognitive
dissonance.
6. The more ____________ is experienced from cognitive dissonance, the
greater the likelihood of making adjustments to one’s beliefs.
Short-Answer Questions
Order Cognitive Dissonance Theory
7. Mark has been a smoker for 15 years. Both of his parents smoke, as do
many of his extended family members. A few people have developed health
problems such as chronic respiratory diseases, but no one has been diagnosed with cancer yet. Mark’s employer has been pushing tobacco cessation
programs and has required everyone to attend a company-paid tobacco
awareness workshop. Since then Mark has noticed the antismoking billboards around his community and has become a little self-conscious about
smoking in public. Mark is experiencing cognitive dissonance. Describe
how Mark’s cognitive dissonance can be alleviated.
8. Lisa and Kim are best friends. Lately Kim has been emotional due to
a breakup with her boyfriend. Lisa knows that Kim complained about
her boyfriend all the time, and she wants to tell Kim she feels glad that
they have finally broken up. She knows it will upset Kim to hear that,
so instead, she tells Kim that she is sorry it happened. Lisa and Kim are
always honest with each other, and Lisa is feeling guilty about lying.
According to Festinger, what will Lisa do to relieve the cognitive dissonance she is feeling?
9. Stacie recently started a new job that requires her to travel overseas for one
year. A few months ago she noticed a mole on her shoulder that has been
changing shape, texture, and color. She has seen information on skin cancer and is aware that early detection is critical. Her departure date is in two
Order Cognitive Dissonance Theory
10 › MHE 500 MCAT: Behavioral Sciences
weeks, and the last thing she wants to deal with is a health problem when
her career is taking off, but she is beginning to feel uneasy about putting
off going to the doctor until she returns from her work overseas. Explain
what Stacie is experiencing.
500. Celebrities and athletes are often recruited to endorse products. They
make claims about the products, but they do not believe what they say or
even use the product. Explain the role of insufficient justification in this
situation.
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