Radiation Safety Equipment and Basic Concepts

Radiation Safety Equipment and Basic Concepts
Radiation Safety Equipment and Basic Concepts
1 Which of the following statements regarding fluoroscopy in the modern cardiac catheterization
laboratory is true?
(A) Modern catheterization laboratories have reduced the potential for x-ray exposure to patients and operators
(B) The x-ray exposure for fluoroscopy is much
lower than the exposure for diagnostic cineangiography
(C) Most reports of radiation skin injury due to
fluoroscopy occurred before 1996 and were
linked to improperly calibrated, analog imaging
equipment
(D) The federal government limits the maximum
allowable fluoroscopic exposure rate to 10
R/min, a rate that is below the known threshold
for skin burns
2 The interventional cardiologist shown in the following figure wishes to minimize his own radiation
A
B
exposure during a procedure that will require imaging in a lateral projection. Which of the following
statements is true?
(A) Panel B is preferred because the principal source
of scatter radiation is positioned farthest from
the operator
(B) Panel A is preferred because the x-ray beam is
directed away from the operator
(C) There is no difference as long as the distances
between the x-ray tube, patient, and image
receptor are held constant
(D) There is no difference because the x-ray beam
penetrates the same thickness of tissue
3 The patient in the following photograph complained
to his family physician about an uncomfortable
‘‘rash’’ on his right lower back that appeared 3 weeks
after he was hospitalized for chest pain. Which of the
following statements is true?
12
Radiation Safety Equipment and Basic Concepts
Radiation Safety, Equipment, and Basic Concepts 13
(A) The photograph illustrates a stochastic effect of
radiation
(B) The photograph illustrates a deterministic effect
of radiation
(C) The delayed appearance makes radiation skin
injury unlikely
(D) This type of injury is very unpredictable
4 The following images were obtained from the same
patient, with the same radiographic equipment. The
image on the left has a grainy appearance, whereas
that on the right is smoother and sharper. Which of
the statements best explains the difference?
(A) The image on the left was acquired with an
excessively high milliampere (mA) setting
(B) The one on the right has been electronically
processed with an edge enhancement filter
(C) The speckled appearance of the image on the
left could have been improved by decreasing the
pulse width
(D) The image on the right is visually superior
because it was made with a larger dose of x-rays
(E) The image on the left indicates that the chargecoupled device (CCD) camera is out of focus
and should be recalibrated by the service
technician
5 The arteriogram shown in the following figure was
obtained with digital subtraction technique, which
eliminates background structures and enhances
the visibility of contrast-filled vessels. Which of
the following statements about digital subtraction
angiography and radiation is true?
(A) A principle advantage of digital subtraction
technique is that each frame delivers a reduced
dose of radiation to the patient
(B) Compared to cardiac ‘‘cine’’ acquisitions, each
frame of a subtraction study delivers a much
larger dose of radiation to the patient
(C) Digital subtraction is a form of postprocessing
that does not influence patient dose
(D) Subtraction technique can enhance low-quality
images obtained with very low x-ray exposure
settings
6 Which of the following statements about tube
filament current (mA) is correct?
(A) Doubling the mA will decrease the patient dose
rate by 50%
(B) Doubling the mA will increase the patient dose
rate by 50%
(C) Doubling the mA will double the patient dose
rate
(D) Doubling the mA will quadruple the patient
dose rate
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