The Era of Political and Intellectual Revolution

The Era of Political and Intellectual Revolution
The Era of Political and Intellectual Revolution
 
1. Galileo is notable for all of the following discoveries EXCEPT
(A) the moons of Jupiter
(B) the law of falling bodies
(C) the mathematical formula for acceleration
(D) sunspots
(E) the principle governing the tides
2. Christiaan Huygens of Holland is notable for all the following
achievements EXCEPT
(A) inventing the pendulum clock
(B) explaining the phenomenon of the rainbow
(C) publishing the first paper on the theory of probability
(D) identifying the rings of Saturn
(E) making major contributions to the mathematics of curves
3. The Paris Observatory was the headquarters for all these major
17th-century scientific experiments EXCEPT
(A) the discovery of the moons of Jupiter
(B) the measurement of the exact circumference of the Earth
(C) the measurement of the distance between the Earth and the sun
(D) the verification of early experiments of Danish astronomer
Tycho Brahe
(E) the discovery of the satellites of Saturn
The Era of Political and Intellectual Revolution ❮ 43
4. In his De Revolutionibus of 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus advanced the theory
that
(A) the Earth orbits the sun
(B) the orbits of the planets are elliptical
(C) the orbits of the planets are irregular
(D) all objects in the universe are in motion
(E) the sun and moon orbit the Earth
5. Which best explains the doctrine of empiricism, which Francis Bacon
made a central part of the scientific method in the 17th century?
(A) What can be perceived through the five senses must be the truth.
(B) Truth can be arrived at by means of abstract reasoning.
(C) The ability to think is the proof of independent existence.
(D) Acceptance of the existence of God must be the starting point
for any investigation of the workings of the universe.
(E) Science can only progress if religion is left behind.
The Era of Political and Intellectual Revolution
6. Which best explains why the Church had always supported the scientific
theories of Ptolemy and Aristotle?
(A) The theories were literally echoed in passages of the Bible.
(B) The theories had been proved beyond any doubt.
(C) Both men were known to have been profoundly religious.
(D) The theories stated that the Earth, and therefore humankind,
was at the center of the universe.
(E) Both men were intellectuals of the highest standing in ancient times.
7. When the Church authorities denied his scientific findings because they
contradicted Holy Scripture, Galileo responded
(A) that religious beliefs were mere superstition, while scientific findings
were facts
(B) that science and the Bible were necessarily contradictory and
incompatible
(C) that science had no relationship to religion
(D) that scientific findings disproved the Bible once and for all
(E) that the Church’s interpretation of Scripture must be at fault
44 ❯ McGraw-Hill’s 500 European History Questions
8. Which of the following was NOT a significant contributor
to the Scientific Revolution?
(A) René Descartes
(B) Galileo Galilei
(C) Edmond Halley
(D) Samuel Pepys
(E) Jean Picard
9. Newton’s Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural
Philosophy), published in 1686–1687, was the first book to set forth
and explain
(A) astronomy
(B) biology
(C) chemistry
(D) geometry
(E) physics
10. The thinkers of the Scientific Revolution were the first to establish that
the shape of the Earth is
(A) a perfect sphere
(B) a sphere slightly flattened at the poles
(C) a sphere slightly elongated at the poles
(D) an irregular shape loosely resembling a sphere
(E) an ellipse
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