The low of lymph Discussion Questions

The low of lymph Discussion Questions
The low of lymph Discussion Questions
11.10 The lymphatic system
a. is essential for the tissue volume homeostasis.
b. is the chief means of clearing escaped plasma proteins from the interstitium.
c. is vital for the immunosurveillance of tissue antigens.
d. transports fatty products of digestion from the intestine to the bloodstream.
e. commences peripherally as endothelial tubes with tight intercellular junctions.
f. empties centrally into the pulmonary veins.
11.11 Lymph nodes
a. contain a network of blood capillaries that can absorb afferent lymph.
b. phagocytose particulate materials washed into them in the lymph.
c. release activated lymphocytes into the nodal bloodstream.
d. possess specialized blood vessel called low-endothelial arterioles.
e. take up circulating lymphocytes from nodal blood vessels.
11.12 The flow of lymph
a. increases when capillary pressure increases.
b. is reduced by tissue movement.
The low of lymph Discussion Questions
c. is promoted by active contraction in large lymphatic vessels.
d. is unidirectional, due to semilunar valves in many lymphatics.
e. is increased in filariasis.
f. is increased by lymph node excision as part of cancer treatment.
11.13 The contractile activity of lymphatic vessels
a. is initiated by depolarization-triggered action potentials.
b. can generate pressures as high as 40 mmHg, if obstructed.
c. depends on L-type Ca2 channels in the smooth muscle membrane.
d. is preceded by a diastolic filling phase, with the downstream (central)
valve open and upstream (distal) valve closed.
e. is stimulated by moderate distension.
f. is inhibited by sympathetic noradrenergic fibres.
11.15 Factors that prevent or mitigate dependent oedema (oedema of the
feet) include
a. a locally low extravascular colloid osmotic pressure.
b. a locally reduced interstitial fluid pressure.
c. reduced leg lymph flow.
d. a rise in local peripheral vascular resistance.
e. the calf muscle pump.
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