The Microcirculation Of Exercising Skeletal Muscle

The Microcirculation Of Exercising Skeletal Muscle
17.6 In the microcirculation of exercising skeletal muscle,
a. O2 transfer is enhanced by capillary recruitment.
b. the average O2 concentration in the capillary in increased, relative to rest,
due to the increased blood flow.
c. CO2 removal is enhanced by a fall in diffusion distance.
d. glucose transfer is enhanced by active transport across the endothelium.
e. glucose transfer is enhanced by a fall in interstitial glucose concentration.
f. increased capillary fluid filtration can reduce the circulating plasma volume.
17.7 The cardiovascular adjustments during exercise can be initiated partly by
a. central command by the cerebral cortex.
b. central resetting of the baroreflex to a lower operating point.
c. feedforward from muscle metaboreceptors.
d. feedforward by the alerting response.
e. a rise in circulating catecholamines in cardiac transplant patients.
For additional questions on exercise, see questions 13.5, 13.9, 13.10 and 15.9.
17.8 Dynamic, endurance training leads to
a. a rise in resting stroke volume.
b. a rise in resting heart rate.
c. a rise in maximum heart rate.
d. a rise in maximal O2 transport capacity, V
The Microcirculation Of Exercising Skeletal Muscle
O2max.
e. a fall in blood volume.
f. angiogenesis in the trained muscle groups.
17.9 The cardiovascular changes after a substantial meal include:
a. an increase in gastrointestinal mucosal blood flow.
b. an increase in cardiac output by 20%.
c. a fall in blood flow to the limbs.
d. a fall in vagal parasympathetic drive to pancreatic blood vessels.
e. postprandial hypertension in patients with autonomic dysfunction.
17.10 Breath-hold immersion of the face in cold water evokes
a. a rise in heart rate.
b. a fall in limb blood flow due to peripheral vasoconstriction.
c. a fall in arterial chemoreceptor activity.
d. a reflex mediated by trigeminal nerve receptors.
17.11 The cardiovascular changes associated with normal ageing include
a. arteriosclerosis, which is primarily an intimal accumulation of cholesterol.
b. increased stiffness of the elastic arteries.
c. a greater rise in diastolic blood pressure than systolic pressure.
d. a rise in mean blood pressure due to an increase in total peripheral
resistance.
The Microcirculation Of Exercising Skeletal Muscle
e. a fall in the maximum heart rate during exercise.
f. increased responsiveness of the myocardium to β-adrenoceptor stimulation.
116 Cardiovascular physiology Questions
T F
Data interpretation problems involving integrated cardiovascular responses:Alerting response, question 14.12;
Exercise (CVS changes at onset), question 16.10. Endurance-trained athletes (improved CVS performance),
question 17.12, below.
17.12 The enhanced cardiovascular performance of endurance-trained athletes.
Cardiovascular and pulmonary function were measured during maximal exercise in untrained
university students and Olympic athletes. Maximal oxygen uptake V
·
O2max increased from
3.3 l min1 in untrained students to 5.0 l min1 in the athletes and maximum cardiac output
from 20 to 30 l min1
, but maximum heart rate fell from 192 to 182 min1
.
a. Did the increase in V
·
O2max require an increase in the arteriovenous difference in O2
concentration? (Hint – consider the Fick principle.)
b. By how much did training increase the maximum stroke volume of the heart?
c. If the ejection fraction is similar for student and athlete, what might cause the increase in
stroke volume?
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