The Pharmacological Treatment Of Heart Failure

The Pharmacological Treatment Of Heart Failure
18.12 Failure of the right ventricle can lead to
a. visible distension of the jugular veins during orthostasis.
b. facial oedema.
c. pitting oedema of the lower leg.
d. a right ventricular ejection fraction of 66%.
e. hepatomegaly.
18.13 In a chronically failing ventricle the cardiac myocyte exhibits
a. an increased systolic Ca2 transient.
b. increased expression of the Na–Ca2 exchanger.
c. increased expression of K channels.
d. increased proneness to delayed after-depolarization (DAD).
e. prolonged action potentials.
18.14 In patients with biventricular chronic cardiac failure,
a. the incidence of cardiac arrhythmia is markedly raised.
b. there is rapid skeletal muscle fatigue during moderate physical exercise.
c. ventricular dilatation increases the mechanical efficiency of contraction.
d. the afterload may depress stroke volume more than in a normal heart.
18.15 In the systemic circulation of patients in heart failure,
a. there is marked vasodilatation of peripheral resistance vessels.
b. arterial blood pressure is often in the normal range.
c. the pulse rate increases normally during exercise.
d. there is marked peripheral venoconstriction.
The Pharmacological Treatment Of Heart Failure
18.16 The following are raised in a patient in chronic cardiac failure:
a. peripheral and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity.
b. circulating catecholamines.
c. circulating angiotensin II.
d. circulating endothelin.
e. circulating brain natriuretic peptide (BNP).
18.17 The renal response to chronic cardiac failure includes
a. reduced salt and water retention.
b. reduced activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system.
c. pronounced renal vasoconstriction.
d. expansion of the extracellular fluid volume.
18.18 Some of the physiological objectives, when treating chronic heart
failure, are to
a. reduce myocardial O2 demand.
b. raise arterial blood pressure.
c. reduce the radius of curvature of the ventricle.
d. boost the plasma volume.
e. reduce the inotropic state of the heart.
Cardiovascular responses in pathological situations Questions 125
18.19 The pharmacological treatment of heart failure often involves
a. angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.
b. potassium-losing diuretics.
c. inhibition of renin production by spironolactone.
d. peripheral vasodilators.
e. Beta-adrenoceptor blockers.
The Pharmacological Treatment Of Heart Failure
18.20 Digoxin
a. inhibits the cardiac myocyte Ca2 pump.
b. increases the size of the myocyte systolic Ca2 transient.
c. causes a tachycardia.
d. increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmia.
e. toxicity is enhanced by hyperkalaemia.
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