The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
1. In 1633, the Catholic Church forced Galileo Galilei to appear before
the Inquisition. This incident is probably still remembered because it
(A) symbolizes the historic mistrust between science and religion
(B) reminds people that the sun is actually the center of the universe
(C) shows that Galileo was actually a better scientist than Copernicus
(D) demonstrates the weakness of the Inquisition in the 1600s
(E) reveals the limitations of the scientific method
2. “There was a very famous dervish in the neighborhood who was
supposed to be the best philosopher in Turkey; they went to consult
him . . . . ‘Reverend Father,’ said Candide, ‘there is a horrible lot of
evil in the world.’
“‘What does it matter,’ said the dervish, ‘whether there is evil
or good? When His Highness sends a ship to Egypt, does he wonder
whether the mice in the ship are comfortable or not?’”
The author of this passage is
(A) Gottfried Leibniz
(B) David Hume
(C) Voltaire
(D) Madame de Lafayette
(E) Aphra Behn
3. Which man was the virtual inventor and master of the essay as
a literary form?
(A) Michel de Montaigne
(B) Jean Bodin
(C) William Harvey
(D) Tycho Brahe
(E) Baruch Spinoza
CHAPTER 5
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
 
4. Which of the following refers to an important scientific discovery of the
1600s?
(A) Antoine Lavoisier and the discovery of hydrogen
(B) Isaac Newton and universal gravitation
(C) Carl Linnaeus and taxonomy
(D) William of Ockham’s razor
(E) Gregor Mendel and heredity
5. All of the following made important discoveries in medicine in the 16th
and 17th centuries EXCEPT
(A) Galen
(B) Andreas Vesalius
(C) Paracelsus
(D) William Harvey
(E) Jean Fernel
6. Witchcraft trials declined when
(A) popular attitudes toward witches began to change
(B) Catholic and Protestant clergy stopped associating disorder with
female sexuality
(C) scientific thinking raised questions about evidence presented in
witchcraft trials
(D) governments decided that witch trials created too much popular
disorder
(E) the Peace of Augsburg (1555) settled the religious differences in the
Holy Roman Empire
7. Deists often used the simile that God was like a
(A) shepherd
(B) watchmaker
(C) puppeteer
(D) father
(E) king
8. In Two Treatises of Government, John Locke
(A) argued that the king was a representative of God on earth
(B) contended that slavery violated the natural rights possessed by all
humans
(C) stated that the purpose of government was to control the negative
impulses that drove human nature
(D) celebrated the Glorious Revolution of 1688
(E) repudiated the blank slate metaphor of knowledge
The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment ❮ 29
9. Montesquieu is associated with
(A) the spread of the scientific method
(B) the compromise solution to Reformation arguments over the
Eucharist
(C) support for the divine right theory of government
(D) logic-based Huguenot petitions for the restoration of their civil
liberties
(E) the separation of the powers of government
10. The phrase “I think, therefore I am” is associated with
(A) Nicolas de Malebranche
(B) Pierre Bayle
(C) Gottfried Leibniz
(D) René Descartes
(E) Francisco Suárez
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