# The Second Law and Third Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law and Third Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law and Third Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law and the
Third Law of Thermodynamics
What is the work (w,.,,) associated with the isothermal reversible
expansion of 1.00 mol (7) of an ideal gas, at 298.15 K (7), from 5.00 L
(V,) to 15.00 L (V3)?
What is the g,,,,, (heat change of the surroundings) associated with the
isothermal reversible expansion of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas, at 298.15 K,
from 5.00 L to 15.00 L? The value of w,., for this process is —2.72 x 10° J. rev
An experimental internal combustion engine operates as a Carnot engine
with an efficiency of 50.0%. How much energy (£) will this engine
generate for work from 1.0 gallon of gasoline? A gallon of gasoline will
generate about 1.4 x 10° J.
What is the efficiency (£) of an engine that operates between 273 K (7)
Determine the Gibbs (AG) free energy change for the following reaction
at 298 K:
The Second Law and Third Law of Thermodynamics
CuO(s) 2 HCl(g) > CuCl,(s) H,O(g)
Determine the molar entropy (AS) of vaporization of butane in J mol!
K”!, The molar heat of vaporization (A/) of liquid butane is 22.9 kJ
mol !, and the boiling point is 289 K (7).
What is the change in the molar Gibbs free energy (AG) for the
conversion of liquid water at 288 K to ice at 288 K (7°)? The vapor
pressure of water at 288 K is 2.121 x 10~° Pa (P,), and the vapor pressure
of ice at 288 K is 1.925 x 107 Pa (P,).
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> McGraw-Hill’s 500 Physical Chemistry Questions
What is the entropy change (AS) associated with the isothermal reversible
expansion of 1.00 mol (7) of an ideal gas, at 298.15 K, from 5.00 L (V,) to 15.00 L (Vy)?
What is the change in the entropy of the surroundings (AS,,,,) associated
with the isothermal reversible expansion of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas, at
298.15 K (7), from 5.00 L to 15.00 L? The value of entropy change for
this process is 9.13 J K7!, and 9,,,, = —2.72 X 10° J.
What is the change in the entropy (AS) of the surroundings and the
system associated with the isothermal reversible expansion of 1.00 mol of
an ideal gas, at 298.15 K, from 5.00 L to 15.00 L? The entropy change
of the system is 9.13 J K’, and the entropy change of the surroundings
is—O.13 Ke.
A sample of neon gas is cooled from 325 K (7}) to 175 K (73). At the
same time, the pressure increases from 1.00 bar (P;) to 7.50 bar (P3). What
is the molar entropy change (AS) for the neon gas?
A sample containing 1.00 mol of helium gas is mixed with 2.00 mol of
neon gas. Assuming both gases are behaving ideally, what is the entropy of
mixing?
Using the data in the following table, calculate the entropy of formation
(AS) for CaO(s) at 298.15 K.
Component S2
Ca(s) 41.4] mol! K”!
O,(g) 205.0] mol K
CaO(s) 39:3] moltk=!
Lanthanum metal undergoes a solid-state phase transition from the o

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