The Second Law and Third Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law and Third Law of Thermodynamics

The Second Law and the

Third Law of Thermodynamics

What is the work (w,.,,) associated with the isothermal reversible

expansion of 1.00 mol (7) of an ideal gas, at 298.15 K (7), from 5.00 L

(V,) to 15.00 L (V3)?

What is the g,,,,, (heat change of the surroundings) associated with the

isothermal reversible expansion of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas, at 298.15 K,

from 5.00 L to 15.00 L? The value of w,., for this process is —2.72 x 10° J. rev

An experimental internal combustion engine operates as a Carnot engine

with an efficiency of 50.0%. How much energy (£) will this engine

generate for work from 1.0 gallon of gasoline? A gallon of gasoline will

generate about 1.4 x 10° J.

What is the efficiency (£) of an engine that operates between 273 K (7)

Determine the Gibbs (AG) free energy change for the following reaction

at 298 K:

The Second Law and Third Law of Thermodynamics

CuO(s) 2 HCl(g) > CuCl,(s) H,O(g)

Determine the molar entropy (AS) of vaporization of butane in J mol!

K”!, The molar heat of vaporization (A/) of liquid butane is 22.9 kJ

mol !, and the boiling point is 289 K (7).

What is the change in the molar Gibbs free energy (AG) for the

conversion of liquid water at 288 K to ice at 288 K (7°)? The vapor

pressure of water at 288 K is 2.121 x 10~° Pa (P,), and the vapor pressure

of ice at 288 K is 1.925 x 107 Pa (P,).

iS

14

68

69.

70.

ak

72:

73.

74.

Uy,

> McGraw-Hill’s 500 Physical Chemistry Questions

What is the entropy change (AS) associated with the isothermal reversible

expansion of 1.00 mol (7) of an ideal gas, at 298.15 K, from 5.00 L (V,) to 15.00 L (Vy)?

What is the change in the entropy of the surroundings (AS,,,,) associated

with the isothermal reversible expansion of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas, at

298.15 K (7), from 5.00 L to 15.00 L? The value of entropy change for

this process is 9.13 J K7!, and 9,,,, = —2.72 X 10° J.

What is the change in the entropy (AS) of the surroundings and the

system associated with the isothermal reversible expansion of 1.00 mol of

an ideal gas, at 298.15 K, from 5.00 L to 15.00 L? The entropy change

of the system is 9.13 J K’, and the entropy change of the surroundings

is—O.13 Ke.

A sample of neon gas is cooled from 325 K (7}) to 175 K (73). At the

same time, the pressure increases from 1.00 bar (P;) to 7.50 bar (P3). What

is the molar entropy change (AS) for the neon gas?

A sample containing 1.00 mol of helium gas is mixed with 2.00 mol of

neon gas. Assuming both gases are behaving ideally, what is the entropy of

mixing?

Using the data in the following table, calculate the entropy of formation

(AS) for CaO(s) at 298.15 K.

Component S2

Ca(s) 41.4] mol! K”!

O,(g) 205.0] mol K

CaO(s) 39:3] moltk=!

Lanthanum metal undergoes a solid-state phase transition from the o