Types of Melanocortin Receptors Discussion

Types of Melanocortin Receptors Discussion
Types of Melanocortin Receptors Discussion
1. There are various types of melanocortin receptors, with different types being
expressed in different tissues in the human body. The type 4 receptors are mainly
responsible for regulation of food intake. Identify the TRUE statement about
melanocortin (MC4R) receptors.
A. MC4R stimulation causes decreased feeding.
B. a-MSH inhibits MC4R.
C. AgRP stimulates MC4R.
D. Melanocortin receptor mutation has not been described as a genetic cause of
Types of Melanocortin Receptors Discussion
2. The arcuate nucleus plays a pivotal role in regulating appetite and food intake. It
contains various orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons and is influenced by
hormones like ghrelin and leptin. Which letter in the picture represents the arcuate
A. A
B. B
C. C
D. D
3. NPY, POMC, and AgRP neurons are affected by leptin signaling and have an
important role in energy homeostasis. Which of the following statements
regarding the effects of these neurotransmitters is TRUE?
A. Both AgRP and POMC are anorexigenic.
B. NPY is anorexigenic, POMC is orexigenic.
C. Both NPY and POMC are orexigenic.
D. POMC is anorexigenic and AgRP is orexigenic.
4. A 4-month-old male baby is brought to the endocrinologist by his mother with the
concern that the baby looked too “fat and big” and had red-colored hair. She is
surprised because both she and her husband have black hair. Baby looks very
lethargic. Vitals are significant for hypotension. Laboratory studies reveal
decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Which of the following is the
MOST LIKELY diagnosis?
A. POMC null mutation
B. MC4R haploinsufficiency
C. AgRP null mutation
D. NPY gene mutation
5. Leptin deficiency is responsible for prolonged activation of the “pleasure center”
in the brain even after sufficient feeding has occurred. Identify the location of this
center from the following coronal slice in MRI.
A. Amygdala
B. Nucleus accumbens
C. Caudate nucleus
D. Putamen
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